Infectious diseases of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses with therapy and prevention and the basis of nutrition
Under the project REXIS
Format A4, PDF, 2.7 MB
Immunity (in biology and medicine) is the defense ability of an organism, based on the presence of antibodies and their ability to fight microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites) and/or their chemical substances (toxins), as well as their own modified (e.g. tumor) and worn-out cells. It is divided into: passive and active immunity.
The passive immunity, divided into natural and artificial, means the transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus in pregnancy and immediately after delivery by sucking colostrum. Artificial passive immunity can be obtained by the application of serum and gamma globulin products in which antibodies are present. The cervix layer determine the pathway by which the mother antibodies can reach the fetus. The cervix of ruminants and pigs is made so that the antibody paths are completely disabled during pregnancy, so young animals can receive antibodies only if they take the first milk (colostrum). It should be known that the amount of antibodies is significantly higher in the colostrum immediately after the partus than after, and that the intestinal permeability is the highest in the first hours of the calf’s life. Because of this, it is extremely important that the newborn takes the first milk as soon as possible to protect itself from many causes of infectious diseases. Thus, the antibodies in the blood of the calves were found 2 hours after the first sucking. It should also be noted that deficient nutrition can greatly affect the state of resistance of an animal, which is certainly worth taking into account.
Active immunity is created if the organism is affected by the pathogen, as with infectious disease that stimulates it to actively produce antibodies. The active immune system is naturally acquired after the natural infection is overcome, but the artificially acquired immune system occurs after the artificial introduction of the antigen (vaccine).